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World Journal of Pharmaceutical
and Medical Research

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical and Medical Research and Technology
An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)
ISSN 2455-3301

ICV : 78.6



Dr. Maham Fatima*, Dr. Anique Ali and Dr. Muhammad Saim


Background: In the year 2000, there were around 171 million people with diabetes globally, and by 2030, it is estimated that this number would increase to 366 million. These microvascular complications are linked to the duration of diabetes mellitus, poor glycemic control and systolic hypertension. Objective: To determine the frequency diabetic retinopathy (DR) in diabetic patients with hypertension. Subjects and Methods; A total of 365 diabetic patients having hypertension were included in our study using non – probability consecutive sampling technique. These patients were screened for diabetic retinopathy. All the information was recorded in the proforma and data was analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results; of these 365 study cases, 226 (61.9%) were male patients while 139 (38.1%) were female patients. Mean age of our study cases was 50.92 ± 5.77 years (with minimum age of our study cases was 40 years while maximum age was 60 years). Of these 365 study cases, 127 (34.8%) belonged to rural areas and 238 (65.2%) belonged to urban areas. Monthly family income up to Rs. 25000 was noted in 188 (51.5%) and 177 (48.5%) had monthly family income rupees more than 25000. History of smoking was present in 89 (24.4%) of our study cases. Mean body mass index was 26.32 ± 2.45 kg/m2 and obesity was present in 112 (30.7%) of our study cases. Mean disease duration was 12.35 ± 7.52 years and 239 (65.5%) had duration of illness more than 5 years. Of these 365 study cases, 238 (65.2%) were illiterate and 127 (34.8%) were literate. Controlled diabetes was noted in 75 (20.5%) and 75 (20.5%) were taking proper treatment. Diabetic retinopathy was 151 (41.4%) of our study cases. Conclusion; Very high frequency of diabetic retinopathy was noted in patients with diabetes and hypertension in our study. Diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with residential status, increasing age, monthly family income, smoking, treatment status, disease duration and obesity. Diabetic retinopathy was not associated with control of diabetes and hypertension. All clinicians treating such patients must educate their patients regarding regular eye check up to decrease disease morbidity.

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